Most Jewel beetles are saproxylic, much like cerambycids beetles, and spend part of their lifecycle boring into wood, usually preferring mature or even senescent tissues. Eggs and larvae develop within the wood and promote degradation and decay processes. When adults emerge they often feed on flowers or leaves. Their presence and species diversity are indicators of forest health. Ancient forests support many more species than managed woodlots.
With such a large group, there are many jewel beetle species known as pests throughout the world. European species Melanophila acuminate, the fire borer, are specialists seeking out burned and scorched trees, sometimes over great distances. The St. Johnwort Borer, Agrilus hyperici is used as a biocontrol agent, with larvae feeding in the rhizomes and stems of herbaceous perennial weeds.
The four point pine borer, Anthaxia quadrapunctata and the Oak splendor beetle, Agrilus biguttus are European pests. Gold spotted oak borer Agrilus coxalis auroguttatus, the Two-lined Chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus and the Bronze birch borer, Agrilus anxius are examples of North American pests.
Both Agrilus sulcicollis, a pest of oak, and Agrilus planipennis, the Emerald ash borer (EAB) have been introduced to North America. EAB originated from Asia and has killed millions of healthy ash trees since its original detection in the Detroit/ Winsor area in 2002. It has now spread throughout central and eastern Canada and much of the north east US.
Synergy Semiochemicals has supplied North American researchers and government agencies such as CFIA and APHIS with traps and lures for one of the main Buprestid pests, Emerald Ash Borer. There has been a major effort by CFIA in Canada and APHIS in the US to delimit the spread of EAB using traps and lures. Bupresids have acute color vision and EAB traps make use of the fact that EAB responds to both green and purple traps along with several lure types including leaf alcohol, manuka oil and the beetle produced pheromone, lactone.
Our own research has shown Bruprestis lyrata is attracted to verbenone which demonstrates jewel beetles using chemical cues to recognize the health and vigor of potential hosts.